Synthesis of Water Distribution Networks through a Multi-Stakeholder Approach
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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. This paper presents a systematic approach to synthesize optimal water distribution networks (WDN) taking into account the water requirement of consumers based on a multi-stakeholder approach. A structural representation is developed to satisfy the water requirements of all users without taking into account water concessions in the region, but considering the depletion of groundwater and surface water, to generate an integral water distribution network. A rigorous mathematical formulation is developed as a mixed-integer linear programming model to transform the water distribution problem into an optimization task that seeks to minimize the overall cost of the water supply network. The proposed optimization model was applied to the Sonoran water scarcity problem from Mexico, where the optimal water distribution network was obtained, based on a multi-criteria approach taking into account the industrial, domestic and agricultural users. The obtained results show that the proposed model can satisfy economic, environmental and social aspects, where the distribution of water is equal for all users without affecting natural resources. Also, the results show economic advantages due to the sales of water.