Although the generic implementation of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) processes for the recovery of biological products has been exploited for several years, this has not resulted in a wide adoption of the technique. The main reasons involve the poor understanding of the mechanism governing phase formation and the behavior of solute partitioning in ATPS processes, the cost of phase forming polymers, and the necessary extended time to optimize the technique. In this review paper, some of the practical disadvantages attributed to ATPS are addressed. The practical approach exploited to design ATPS processes, the application to achieve process integration, the extended use for the recovery of high-value products, and the recent development of new low-cost ATPS, are discussed. It is proposed that the trend of the practical application of ATPS processes for the recovery of biological products will involve the purification of new high-value bioparticulate products with medical applications. Such a trend will give new impetus to the technique, and will draw attention from industries needing to develop new, and improve existing, commercial processes.