Design of a surface plasmon resonance immunoassay for therapeutic drug monitoring of amikacin
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© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of pharmaceutical drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges is of great importance in the clinical setting. It provides useful information towards the enhancement of drug therapies, aiding in dosage control and toxicity risk management. Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly used in neonatal therapies that is indicated for TDM due to the toxicity risks inherent in its use. Current techniques for TDM such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are costly, time consuming, and cannot be performed at the site of action. Over the last decades, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have become increasingly popular in clinical diagnostics due to their ability to detect biomolecular interactions in real-time. We present an SPR-based competitive immunoassay for the detection of the antibiotic amikacin, suitable for TDM in both adults and neonates. We have obtained high specificity and sensitivity levels with an IC50 value of 1.4 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 0.13 ng/mL, which comfortably comply with the drug's therapeutic range. Simple dilution of serum can therefore be sufficient to analyze low-volume real samples from neonates, increasing the potential of the methodology for TDM. Compared to current TDM conventional methods, this SPR-based immunoassay can provide advantages such as simplicity, potential portability, and label-free measurements with the possibility of high throughput. This work is the foundation towards the development of an integrated, simple use, highly sensitive, fast, and point-of-care sensing platform for the opportune TDM of antibiotics and other drugs in a clinical setting.