Acquired and Hereditary Hypercoagulable States in Patients with Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices: Prevalence and Thrombotic Complications
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© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Background Thrombotic events in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to delineate the frequency, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with hypercoagulable states who undergo CF-LVAD implantation. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 168 consecutive patients who underwent CF-LVAD implantation between 2010 and 2013. Chart and laboratory data were reviewed for the presence of a hereditary and/or acquired hypercoagulable state. Adverse outcomes were defined as death, confirmed pump thrombosis, aortic root clot, stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Fisher's exact test and Kaplan-Meier estimate were used to analyze frequency of adverse outcomes and event free survival, respectively. Results A hypercoagulable state was identified in 20 patients (11.9%). There were 18 patients with acquired, 1 with a congenital, and 1 with both congenital and acquired hypercoagulable states. The median follow-up was 429 days and 475 days in patients with and without hypercoagulable states, respectively. During the study period, 15% (3/20) of the patients with a hypercoagulable state had a diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis vs 3% (4/148) of the patients without a hypercoagulable state (P = .030). Only patients with a hypercoagulable state had a subarachnoid hemorrhage (3/20 vs 0/148; P < .01). The event-free survival was lower in the patients with hypercoagulable states (P = .005). Conclusion Hypercoagulable states are not uncommon in patients with CF-LVADs and may be associated with increased morbidity. Prospective studies are needed to more accurately identify the incidence, prevalence, and significance of hypercoagulable states in patients being considered for CF-LVAD.