The panorama of familial hypercholesterolemia in Latin America: A systematic review
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Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.The burden caused by familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) varies among countries and ethnic groups. The prevalence and characteristics of FH in Latin American (LA) countries is largely unknown. We present a systematic review (following the PRISMA statement) of FH in LA countries. The epidemiology, genetics, screening, management, and unique challenges encountered in these countries are discussed. Published reports discussing FH in Hispanic or LA groups was considered for analysis. Thirty studies were included representing 10 countries. The bulk of the data was generated in Brazil and Mexico. Few countries have registries and there was little commonality in FH mutations between LA countries. LDL receptor mutations predominate; APOB and PCSK9 mutations are rare. No mutation was found in an FH gene in nearly 50% of cases. In addition, some country-specific mutations have been reported. Scant information exists regarding models of care, cascade screening, cost, treatment effectiveness, morbidity, and mortality. In conclusion, FH is largely underdiagnosed and undertreated in the LA region. The genetic admixture with indigenous populations, producing mestizo's groups, may influence the mutational findings in Latin America. Potential opportunities to close gaps in knowledge and health care are identified.