Influenza A (H1N1pdm09)-Related Critical Illness and Mortality in Mexico and Canada, 2014
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Copyright © 2016 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Objectives: The 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1pdm09) pandemic caused substantial morbidity and mortality among young patients; however, mortality estimates have been confounded by regional differences in eligibility criteria and inclusion of selected populations. In 2013-2014, H1N1pdm09 became North America's dominant seasonal influenza strain. Our objective was to compare the baseline characteristics, resources, and treatments with outcomes among critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1pdm09) in Mexican and Canadian hospitals in 2014 using consistent eligibility criteria. Design: Observational study and a survey of available healthcare setting resources. Setting: Twenty-one hospitals, 13 in Mexico and eight in Canada. Patients: Critically ill patients with confirmed H1N1pdm09 during 2013-2014 influenza season. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The main outcome measures were 90-day mortality and independent predictors of mortality. Among 165 adult patients with H1N1pdm09-related critical illness between September 2013 and March 2014, mean age was 48.3 years, 64% were males, and nearly all influenza was community acquired. Patients were severely hypoxic (median Pao 2 -to-Fio 2 ratio, 83 mm Hg), 97% received mechanical ventilation, with mean positive end-expiratory pressure of 14 cm H 2 O at the onset of critical illness and 26.7% received rescue oxygenation therapy with prone ventilation, extracorporeal life support, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, or inhaled nitric oxide. At 90 days, mortality was 34.6% (13.9% in Canada vs 50.5% in Mexico, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of mortality included lower presenting Pao 2 -to-Fio 2 ratio (odds ratio, 0.89 per 10-point increase [95% CI, 0.80-0.99]), age (odds ratio, 1.49 per 10 yr increment [95% CI, 1.10-2.02]), and requiring critical care in Mexico (odds ratio, 7.76 [95% CI, 2.02-27.35]). ICUs in Canada generally had more beds, ventilators, healthcare personnel, and rescue oxygenation therapies. Conclusions: Influenza A (H1N1pdm09)-related critical illness still predominantly affects relatively young to middle-aged patients and is associated with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. The local critical care system and available resources may be influential determinants of patient outcome.