High Hydrostatic Pressure and Temperature Applied to Preserve the Antioxidant Compounds of Mango Pulp (Mangifera indica L.)
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© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processes combined with moderate heating can be used to preserve foods while maintaining general quality. The effect of these conditions on the total phenolic (TP), vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid (AA)), carotenoids, and antioxidant activity (AOA) of mango purees was evaluated. Purees were processed at 400¿550 MPa/34 and 59 °C at different holding times. Unprocessed puree had TP of 26.6 mg gallic acid/100 g, 21.1 mg L-ascorbic acid/100 g, AOA of 885 ¿mol trolox equivalents/100 g, and total carotenoids of 6.0 mg ß-carotene/100 g. HHP treatments increased the phenolic concentrations up to 34% (550 MPa/59 °C/2 and 4 min) compared with the initial content, probably due to improvement of their extraction. AA content was reduced significantly (10¿45%) after all HHP processes performed at 59 °C, while at 34 °C, they were diminished only after 8 and 16 min of treatment (13¿26%). At 34 °C and lower times, AA concentration increased in average 18%. Total carotenoid retention in HHP-treated samples varies from 77 to 98%, being the higher the temperature the lower the retention observed. The concentration of most individual carotenoids remains unchanged, but violaxanthin content was reduced (21¿26%) and 9-cis-violaxanthin was increased by about 10%. The AOA was also increased (up to 39%) at some processing conditions. A linear correlation between the TP and AOA was obtained. HHP at 550 MPa combined with moderate temperature (34 °C) at processing times up to 8 min is recommended for the maximum retention of the antioxidant compounds of mango puree.