In vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, cv. Rojo Brillante) used as an ingredient in a model dairy food
- Additional Document Info
- View All
© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry BACKGROUND: Addition of persimmon fruit, which is highly rich in carotenoids, to dairy products represents an alternative to obtain functional foods. However, carotenoid bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by fat content and food composition. That is why in vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids was evaluated in persimmon-based dairy products formulated with whole (3.6% fat) or skimmed milk (0.25% fat) and different freeze-dried persimmon tissues. RESULTS: Unambiguous identification of seven xanthophylls (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide and ß-cryptoxanthin) and three hydrocarbon carotenes (¿-carotene, ß-carotene and lycopene) was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography with a reverse-phase C-30 column. Total carotenoid content declined up 71% through the digestion process. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids was significantly higher in dairy products formulated with whole milk than those with skimmed milk, representing a difference of more than 21% (in the formulation using persimmon whole fruit as ingredient). Furthermore, addition of whole milk to any type of persimmon tissue significantly improved the bioaccessibility of total provitamin A carotenoids, reaching the highest values (38%) with whole fruit and whole milk. CONCLUSION: The higher fat content in whole milk exerted a significant influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility, especially when using freeze-dried persimmon whole fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.