Delphinidin ameliorates hepatic triglyceride accumulation in human HepG2 cells, but not in diet-induced obese mice
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© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Anthocyanin consumption is linked to benefits in obesity-related metabolic alterations and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), though the functional role of delphinidin (Dp) is yet to be established. Therefore, this study examined the effects of Dp on metabolic alterations associated with NAFLD, and molecular mechanisms in HepG2 cells and diet-induced obese mice. Cells incubated with palmitate to induce lipid accumulation, concomitantly treated with Dp, reduced triglyceride accumulation by ~53%, and downregulated gene expression of CPT1A, SREBF1, and FASN without modifying AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels. C57BL/6Nhsd mice were fed a standard diet (control) or a high-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (HFHC) for 16 weeks. Mice in the HFHC group were subdivided and treated with Dp (HFHC-Dp, 15 mg/kg body weight/day) or a vehicle for four weeks. Dp did not affect body weight, energy intake, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, or histological abnormalities elicited by the HFHC diet. Furthermore, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of Acaca, and Fasn in hepatic or epididymal adipose tissue, and the hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/AMPK and proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR¿) signaling axis did not significantly change due to the HFHC diet or Dp. In summary, Dp effectively reduced triglyceride accumulation in vitro through the modulation of lipid metabolic gene expression. However, a dose of Dp administrated in mice simulating the total daily anthocyanin intake in humans had no effect on either metabolic alterations or histological abnormalities associated with HFHC diets.