Combined effect of ultrasound treatment and exogenous phytohormones on the accumulation of bioactive compounds in broccoli florets
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© 2018 Elsevier B.V.Postharvest treatments such as wounding, ultrasound (US) and the exogenous application of ethylene (ET) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) have been studied as an effective tool to improve the content of secondary metabolites in fresh produce. The present study evaluated the immediate and late response (storage for 72 h at 15 °C) to US treatment (20 min, frequency 24 kHz, amplitude 100 ¿m) alone and combined with exogenous MJ (250 ppm) and/or ET (1000 ppm) on glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid content in broccoli florets. US treatment increased the extractability of glucosinolates [glucoraphanin (795%), 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin (153%), glucobrassicin (78.6%)] and phenolics [1-sinapoyl-2-feruloylgentiobiose (57.23%)] as compared with the control (CT). The combined application of MJ and US in broccoli florets, induced a synergistic effect on the accumulation of 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin (187.1%), glucoerucin (111.92%), gluconasturtiin (755.9%), neoglucobrassicin (232.8%), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (73.4%), 1-sinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (56.0%), and 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobiose (136.7%) at 72 h of storage. Interestingly, when the three stressors were applied together the synergistic effect of US + MJ observed on the accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolics was repressed. In general, the ascorbic acid content was not affected by US treatment and decreased in most samples during storage. However, when MJ + ET were applied, the content of total ascorbic acid was significantly reduced in CT + MJ + ET and US + MJ + ET samples after 72 h of storage by 53.4% and 86.6%, respectively, as compared with CT 0 h samples. Based on the results herein obtained, the application of US can be an effective tool to enhance the extractability of certain glucocosinolate and phenolic compounds in broccoli. Moreover, due to the synergistic effect observed on the accumulation of bioactive compounds, the combined application of US and MJ could be a practical approach to yield higher levels of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli during storage.