Genetic variants in CYP2A6 and UGT1A9 genes associated with urinary nicotine metabolites in young Mexican smokers
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© 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.Nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco. Several studies have examined genotypes related to nicotine metabolism, but few studies have been performed in the Mexican population. The objective was to identify associations between gene variants in metabolizing enzymes and the urinary levels of nicotine metabolites among Mexican smokers. The levels of nicotine and its metabolites were determined in the urine of 88 young smokers from Mexico, and 167 variants in 24 genes associated with nicotine metabolism were genotyped by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Trans-3¿-hydroxy-cotinine (3HC) and 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanoic acid were the most abundant metabolites (35 and 17%, respectively). CYP2A6*12 was associated with 3HC (p = 0.014). The rs145014075 was associated with creatinine-adjusted levels of nicotine (p = 0.035), while the rs12471326 (UGT1A9) was associated to cotinine-N-glucuronide (p = 0.030). CYP2A6 and UGT1A9 variants are associated to nicotine metabolism. 4HPBA metabolite was an abundant urinary metabolite in young Mexican smokers.