Effect of processing on the hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, and cellular antioxidant activity of tortillas supplemented with sorghum bran
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© 2019 Cereals & Grains AssociationBackground and objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sorghum bran (SB) addition on the bound and free hydroxycinnamic acids, flavone levels, total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanin content, in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as cellular antioxidant activity of corn tortillas prepared with nixtamalized corn flour (NCF + SB). Findings: The addition of SB increased the bound and free ferulic (FA), p-coumaric (p-CA), dehydro-diferulic (di-FA), and dehydro-triferulic (tri-FA) acids in tortillas. Corn tortillas enriched with 10% of sorghum bran contained higher total ferulic acid (186.78 mg FA/100 g), luteolin (3.05 µg/g), apigenin (2.26 µg/g), cellular antioxidant activity (36.95%), in vitro antioxidant activity (8.79%), total phenolic compounds (172.47 mg GAE/100 g), and total anthocyanin content (12.42 mg/100 g) compared to the control tortilla. The baking process increased the free ferulic acid from 66.6% to 131.2% in tortillas. Despite the effects of lime-cooking and baking, tortillas prepared with the NCF + SB-10% retained approximately 86%, 90%, 54%, and 60% of total ferulic acid, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and total anthocyanin content, respectively. Likewise, the retention of apigenin and luteolin was 62% and 69%, respectively, whereas the retention of the cellular antioxidant activity was 58%. Conclusions: The tortilla NCF + SB-10% showed the best phytochemical profile and exerted the highest cellular antioxidant activity. Sorghum bran can be used as a functional ingredient for the production of corn tortillas with higher amounts of ferulic acid, cellular antioxidant activity, flavones, and total phenolic compounds. Significance and novelty: The supplementation of SB to corn tortillas enhanced the bound and free hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, total anthocyanins, and cellular antioxidant activity.