Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of juice, flavedo, albedo and comminuted orange
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Orange contains phytochemicals effective in the prevention/treatment of chronic diseases. Although many orange peel phytochemicals have been identified, information on their distribution in flavedo and albedo is incomplete limiting the development of applications for orange byproducts including comminuted orange obtained by grinding peel/juice and used in beverage formulations. Phytochemical concentration, antioxidant activity (AOA) and their relationship were determined for comminuted orange, juice and peel fractions. The highest vitamin C (74.7-98.2. mg ascorbic acid/100. g), flavones (235.9-265.0. mg hesperidin/100. g) and carotenoid (1.04-6.21. mg ß-carotene/100. g) contents were found in flavedo. Albedo was the main source of phenolics (553.1-730.0. mg gallic acid/100. g), flavanones (1450.0-2084.5. mg hesperidin/100. g), and AOA (11953.2-15484.0. ¿mol trolox/100. g). AOA linearly correlated with phenolic, hesperidin, and flavonoid concentrations. Orange peel increased the phenolics, flavonoids and AOA of comminuted orange by 111%, 783% and 304%, respectively, when compared with juice, showing its potential to formulate functional foods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.