Phenanthrene degradation in soil by ozonation: Effect of morphological and physicochemical properties
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd The aim of this study was to characterize the ozone reaction with phenanthrene adsorbed in two types of soils (sand and agricultural). The effect of soil physicochemical properties (texture, bulk density, particle density, porosity, elemental composition, permeability, surface area and pore volume) on the phenanthrene decomposition was evaluated. Commercial sand has a uniform morphology (spherical) with a particle size range between 0.178 and 0.150 mm in diameter, regular elemental composition SiO 2 , specific density of 1701.38 kg/m 3 , a true density of 2492.50 kg/m 3 , with an effective porosity of 31%. On the other hand, the agricultural soil had heterogeneous morphology, particle size between 0.1779 and 0.05 mm in diameter, elemental composition was montmorrillonite silicon oxide, apparent density of 999.52 kg/m 3 , a true density of 2673.55 kg/m 3 , surface area of 34.92 m 2 /g and porosity of 57%. The percentage of phenanthrene decomposition in the sand was 79% after 2 h of treatment. On the other hand, the phenanthrene degradation in the agricultural soil was 95% during the same reaction time. The pore volume of soil limited the crystal size of phenanthrene and increased the contact surface with ozone confirming the direct impact of physicochemical properties of soils on the decomposition kinetics of phenanthrene. In the case of agricultural soil, the effect of organic matter on phenanthrene decomposition efficiency was also investigated. A faster decomposition of initial contaminant and byproducts formed in ozonation was obtained in natural agricultural soil compared to the sand. The partial identification of intermediates and final accumulated products produced by phenanthrene decomposition in ozonation was developed. Among others, phenanthroquinone, hydroquinone, phenanthrol, catechol as well as phthalic, diphenic, maleic and oxalic acids were identified.