Purification and Formulation of Xanthophyll for Pharmaceutical Use: Current Strategies and Future Trends
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Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimThe increasing attention to biological activities of dietary xanthophylls demands the establishment of attractive and easy-to-implement purification protocols for their recovery from different sources. Bioengineering strategies that involve alternative isolation and purification techniques have gained interest since they offer practical benefits in comparison to traditional column chromatography methods. Furthermore, the use of these techniques has resulted in compound purities from 50 to 98 %. Besides purification, it is important to keep in mind that xanthophyll bioavailability is limited due to their low solubility in digestive fluids. Therefore, there is also the need to enhance xanthophyll bioavailability through formulations of the purified compounds. Several formulation techniques have been employed to obtain products for bioavailability or stability studies. However, there is a lack of studies that address the effect of the formulation upon the bioavailability and stability of these compounds. In the present review, emerging purification and formulation technologies that have shown potential for xanthophyll isolation and bioavailability enhancement are critically discussed. This analysis is presented in order to discuss the current trends in the purification and formulation technologies of xanthophylls, particularly for pharmaceutical use.