Myokine-adipokine cross-talk: Potential mechanisms for the association between plasma irisin and adipokines and cardiometabolic risk factors in Mexican children with obesity and the metabolic syndrome
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© 2019 The Author(s).Background: Adipokines and the myokine irisin, involved in mechanisms associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS), are understudied in the pediatric population. Objective: To investigate the relationship between irisin, and leptin, resistin, adiponectin, adipsin, anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican children. Methods: A cross-sample of 126 Mexican children aged 6-12 years old were classified as normal weight (n = 46), obese (n = 40), and MS (n = 40) according to CDC's and Cook's age-modified criteria for obesity and MS. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were determined and percentiles calculated for age and gender. Irisin, leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, resistin, triglycerides, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, and physical activity were determined. Statistical tests for differences between groups, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: Irisin plasma levels were significantly lower in the obese (6.08 [4.68-6.65]) and MS groups (6.46 [5.74-7.02]) compared with the normal-weight group (8.05 [7.24-8.94]) (p < 0.001). Irisin levels were not influenced by age or gender, but significant dispersion was observed in obese girls (95% CI median [2.29-6.30]). Leptin, resistin, and adipsin levels were significantly increased in the obese and MS groups. Lean-fat ratio was significantly higher in the NW group. Irisin correlated negatively with leptin (- 0.310), resistin (- 0.389), adipsin (- 0.362), BMI% (-0.472), WC% (- 0.453), BMI z-score (- 0.496), fat free mass (- 0.257), fat percentage (- 0.532), fat mass (- 0.515), triglycerides (- 0.291), the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (- 0.443) (p < 0.001); positively with lean-fat ratio (0.489) and HDL-c (0.328) (p < 0.001) and none with physical activity (p < 0.001). Following stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, the lean-fat ratio was the only determinant of irisin levels (B = 1.168, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Lean-fat ratio, more than the absolute amount of muscle or fat mass, as well as potential myokine-adipokine cross-talk mechanisms may explain the lower irisin levels in children with obesity and MS, through blunted compensatory responses interfering with tissue-dependent irisin secretion, contributing to a continuous deleterious effect cycle.