IEEEThe aim of this article is to investigate the trajectory tracking problem of systems with uncertain models and state restrictions using differential neural networks (DNNs). The adaptive control design considers the design of a nonparametric identifier based on a class of continuous artificial neural networks (ANNs). The design of adaptive controllers used the estimated weights on the identifier structure yielding a compensating structure and a linear correction element on the tracking error. The stability of both the identification and tracking errors, considering the DNN, uses a barrier Lyapunov function (BLF) that grow to infinity whenever its arguments approach some finite limits for the state satisfying some predefined ellipsoid bounds. The analysis guarantees the semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) solution for the tracking error, which implies the achievement of an invariant set. The suggested controller produces closed-loop bounded signals. This article also presents the comparison between the tracking states forced by the adaptive controller estimated with the DNN based on BLF and quadratic Lyapunov functions as well. The effectiveness of the proposal is demonstrated with a numerical example and an implementation in a real plant (mass-spring system). This comparison confirmed the superiority of the suggested controller based on the BLF using the estimates of the upper bounds for the system states.