Seasonal Variation in Vitamin D in Association with Age, Inflammatory Cytokines, Anthropometric Parameters, and Lifestyle Factors in Older Adults
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© 2017 Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor et al. Vitamin D deficiency is present even in sunny regions. Ageing decreases pre-vitamin D production in the skin and is associated with altered cytokine profile. We performed a multivariate analysis considering lifestyle factors, anthropometric, and inflammatory markers according to seasonal variation in Mexican healthy older adults. The same cohort was followed during 12 months. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was found in 91.3% of the subjects despite living in appropriate latitude (25°40¿0¿N). 25(OH)D levels remained below <30 ng/mL through all seasons. Vitamin D deficiency did not correlate to sun exposure or dietary intake. Gender was the strongest associated factor, explaining a variance of 20%. Waist circumference (WC) greater than 88 cm was a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. Age (>74 years) combined with WC (>88 cm) and BMI (>32.7) showed a high probability (90%) of vitamin D deficiency. Remarkably, an increase in one centimeter in WC decreased 25(OH)D by 0.176 ng/mL, while an increase in one point BMI decreased 25(OH)D by 0.534 ng/mL. A cutoff point of 74 years of age determined probability of vitamin D hipovitaminosis. Vitamin D deficiency was correlated with TNF-¿ serum levels, possibly increasing the susceptibility of older adults to a proinflammatory state and its related diseases.