Temporal frame of immune cell infiltration during heart failure establishment: Lessons from animal models
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© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Heart failure (HF) is a cardiovascular syndrome characterized by maladaptive changes with an underlying inflammatory mediated pathogenesis. Nevertheless, current therapy is aimed at the heart workload and neurohormonal axis; thus, prognosis remains poor. To continue improving treatment, we rely on murine models for a better understanding of HF pathophysiology. Among them, pressure overload HF (PO-HF) animal models are a common strategy. Development of PO-HF is characterized by monocyte infiltration, which orchestrates a cascade of events leading to sustained inflammation and maladaptive changes. Here, we divide the PO-HF model progression into four phases and describe the inflammatory, structural, and gene expression profiles. This division is relevant due to its similarities with clinical hypertensive heart disease progression to HF. Evidence shows improvement in hemodynamic and other local parameters by altering the inflammatory response in a specific immune response at a specific point of time. Thus, it is relevant to focus on the time-dependent immune response interaction in order to provide more effective therapy. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of PO-HF murine models, highlighting the inflammatory events in a time frame view. By this approach, we expect to provide researchers with a better understanding of the intertwining time-dependent events that occur in PO-HF.