Chemical profile and safety assessment of a food-grade acetogenin-enriched antimicrobial extract from avocado seed Academic Article in Scopus uri icon


  • © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Acetogenins are bioactive fatty acid derivatives found in avocado tissues. Their efficacy as antimicrobials has been documented and initiated interest to use them as replacements of synthetic food additives. The present work focused on evaluation of multiple analytical methodologies for detection and quantification of organic solids present in a food-grade acetogenin-enriched extract (Avosafe®), and on its safety evaluations using bacterial reverse mutation (AMES) tests and acute oral toxicity to rat assays. Results confirmed chemical structures of two acetogenins as present in Avosafe® (AcO-avocadyne-(0) and AcO-avocadiene B-(3)), and together with seven other previously known compounds, quantified 94.74 ± 5.77% w/w of its solids as acetogenins. Safety evaluations indicated that Avosafe® was non-mutagenic and had an acute median lethal oral dose (LD50) to rats higher than the maximum concentration tested (>2000 mg·kg-1), with no signs of macroscopic abnormalities in organs. Mean body weight and hematological and biochemical parameters were normal after 14 days of a single oral dose of 2000 mg·kg-1. The results advance scientific information on the safety of avocado seed acetogenins and also generate new knowledge on profiles and concentrations of individual acetogenins found in avocado tissues (seed, pulp, and leaves) and in Avosafe®

publication date

  • January 1, 2019